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Atomic physics studies about the atoms which isolates the system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. This deals with the properties of atoms, which are mostly due to their electron configuration. Atomic physics is mainly concerned with electrons encircling the nucleus of an atom. It has led to important applications in medicine, lasers, communications, etc. and also providing a testing ground for Quantum Theory, Quantum Electrodynamics and its derivatives.
Nuclear physics is the field of science that studies about atomic nuclei, constituents and interactions. Nuclear Physics on the other hand, apprehensions itself with the particles of the nucleus called nucleons (protons & neutrons). The research in this field has led to many applications such as nuclear power, nuclear weapons, nuclear medicine, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. The modern nuclear physics includes nuclear fusion, nuclear fission, nuclear decay and Production of "heavy" elements using atomic number greater than five.
Quantum physics also known as quantum mechanics which includes the quantum field theory is a division of physics which describes the nature at the minimum scales of energy levels of subatomic particles and atoms. Quantum physics can release the separate performances of the subatomic particles that consists all forms of matter (electrons, protons, neutrons, photons, and others). Heavy nucleus which contains hundreds of nucleons is treated as a quantum-mechanical one.
Atomic spectroscopy studies about the electromagnetic radiation absorbed and emitted by atoms. In the determination of elemental compositions the electromagnetic spectrum or mass spectrum is applied that can be distributed by the type of spectroscopy used or with the atomization source. For systematic use the technology of atomic spectroscopy has generated three techniques such as Atomic Absorption, Atomic Emission and Atomic Fluorescence. The transitions involve the relaxation and excitation of the outer or bonding shell electrons of metal ions and atoms and the corresponding photons have energies inside the visible regions of the spectrum and ultraviolet. A decent instance of this is the dark absorption lines in the solar spectrum.
Nuclear Medicine is one of the applications of nuclear physics. The technologies used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging are Rontgen’s discovery of X-rays and Becquerel’s discovery of natural radioactivity. The main focus in nuclear medicine in physics is the diagnostic application of Nuclear Medicine which medicine involves the administration of trace amounts of compounds labelled with radioactivity (radionuclides) that are used to provide diagnostic information in many disease.
Atomic Astrophysics implements atomic physics calculations which use atomic data for reading astronomical observations. Atomic physics plays a main role in the arena of astrophysics because the astronomers get the information about any particular object through the emitted light, as this light will arise through the atomic transitions. Molecular Astrophysics studies about the emission of molecules which are in space. The molecules which are having more number of observable transitions are nearly 110 interstellar molecules
Laser stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The physics of an atom laser is similar to that of an optical laser and the main difference between an optical and an atom laser is that atoms interact with themselves, cannot be created as photons and retain mass whereas photons do not. Main applications of the atom laser are atom holography and atom interferometry.
Plasma physics is the study of a state of matter comprising charged particles. Plasmas are usually created by heating a gas until the electrons become detached from their parent atom or molecule. This so-called ionization can also be achieved using high-power laser light or microwaves. Plasmas are found naturally in stars and in space.Lightning is an example of plasma present at Earth's surface. Typically, lightning discharges 30,000 amperes at up to 100 million volts, and emits light, radio waves, X-rays and even gamma rays. Plasma temperatures in lightning can approach 28,000 K (28,000 °C; 50,000 °F) and electron densities may exceed 1024 m−3.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles. The applications of Quantum Mechanics include Electronics, Cryptography, Quantum Computing, Macroscale Quantum Effects, Quantum Theory.
Nanotechnology is the study and application of very small things which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanotechnology is control of matter on a nuclear, sub-atomic and supramolecular scale. Nanotechnology as characterized by size is actually extremely wide, including fields of science as different as surface science, natural science, sub-atomic science, semiconductor material science, micro fabrication, sub-atomic building and so on.
Nuclear reactor physics deals with the study and application of chain reaction to make a controlled rate of fission in a nuclear reactor for the production of energy. Many nuclear reactors use this chain reaction to bring a controlled rate of nuclear fission in fissile material which releases both energy and free neutrons. The reactor comprises of nuclear fuel, generally surrounded by a neutron moderator such as regular water, heavy water, graphite or zirconium hydride.
Nuclear engineering is the division of engineering, which is the analysis (fission) as well as the arrangement (fusion) of atomic nuclei or the application of other sub-atomic physics, based on the ideologies of nuclear physics. Nuclear engineering deals with the application of nuclear energy which includes nuclear power plants, submarine propulsion systems, food production, nuclear weapons and radioactive-waste disposal facilities. The field also includes the study of medical and other applications of radiation, nuclear safety and the problems of nuclear proliferation.
Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion are dissimilar types of reactions that release due to the formation of nuclei with higher nuclear binding energy. Nuclear fission is also a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into lighter nuclei, which produces neutrons and photons and also releases a large amount of energy. Nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei collide at very high energy to form one or more altered atomic nuclei and subatomic particles.
Atomic collisions are elementary collisions that occur between two atomic particles such as atoms, molecules, electrons or ions. This kind of collisions is two types, they are elastic collisions and inelastic collisions. In an Elastic collision the total energy remains the same before and after the collision, where the directions of motion of the particles are transformed and the kinetic energy is merely distributed among the particles. In an Inelastic collision the internal energy of the colliding particles will change where these particles go through transitions to different energy levels and the electronic state of an atom or a molecule is changed.
Radioactive decay is also known as nuclear decay and it occurs when an unsteady atom loses energy by emitting radiation such as alpha particle, beta particle, gamma rays or electron in the case of internal conversion. Radioactivity is the result of the decay or disintegration of unstable nuclei. This process of radioactive decay can be done using three primary methods; by spontaneous fission (splitting) into two fragments, a nucleus can change one of its neutrons into a proton with the done at the same time emission of an electron (beta decay), by emitting a helium nucleus (alpha decay).
Nuclear Astrophysics is a combination of nuclear physics and astrophysics which studies about the nuclear reactions and nuclear-level processes that occur naturally in space. Nuclear astrophysics has the spectacular movement in modelling the structure and evolution of stars, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations.
Periodic table arranges all the elements basing on their atomic number, electron configurations and recurring chemical properties. The rows of the table are called periods and the columns are called groups. The periodic table can be used to develop interactions between the properties of the elements and calculate the properties of new elements that are to be discovered.
Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them.It is also called "high energy physics", because many elementary particles do not occur under normal circumstances in nature, but can be created and detected during energetic collisions of other particles, as is done in particle accelerators.Modern particle physics research is focused on subatomic particles, which have less structure than atoms.These include atomic constituents such as electrons, protons, and neutrons (protons and neutrons are actually composite particles, made up of quarks), particles produced by radiative and scattering processes, such as photons, neutrinos, and muons, as well as a wide range of exotic particles.Strictly speaking, the term particle is a misnomer because the dynamics of particle physics are governed by quantum mechanics.